Hi all! Allen Wyma of Rustacean Station had me on the podcast to talk about Rust at Cloudflare. We cover why and how Cloudflare started using Rust, how my team specifically works with Rust, and how Cloudflare works. We also go on a big tangent about social security numbers. Give the episode a listen if you'd like.
Say you're running a long-lived program, like a server. Let's say the server needs to read some files from disk, like certificates or keys. Every so often, the certificates change, so your server has to reload them. How do you tell the server to reload those files? The traditional way is to use Unix signals. Your server listens for a particular signal, like
SIGUSR1 (user-defined signal #1) or
SIGHUP (hangup signal), and can execute whatever code you programmed in when the signal is received. So, your code waits for the appropriate signal, receives it, then reloads the certs.
This approach works fine, but it has some usability problems that came up at work. So, my coworkers have been thinking about better ways to do this. I wanted to blog about one such way, and see if anyone has better ideas.
Last week in Tokio's Discord chat server someone asked a really interesting question: how can you stream a multipart body from an incoming request into an outgoing request? My struggle to answer this really helped me understand Rust async lifetimes. We'll explore why this is tricky, then design and benchmark a solution.
I learned about extensions when reading the hyper docs. But they also pop up in lots of other Rust web libraries, like http, tonic, and actix-web. So they must be really useful, if so many libraries offer them. But I personally had no idea what they were or how to use them. Today I'm going to explain what extensions really are (a set of values, keyed by type), and how you can use them to pass data between different parts of your web servers (e.g. middleware, routers, and handler functions). I'll give you a real-world example from the gRPC server I'm building at my job.
Over the last few weeks I built my own DNS client. Mostly because I thought dig (the standard DNS client) was kinda clunky. Partly because I wanted to learn more about DNS. So here's how I built it, and how you can build your own too. It's a great weekend project, and I learned a lot from finishing it.
Programming languages generally only manipulate bytes (groups of 8 bits). It can be pretty tricky to manipulate single bits. But sometimes you need to -- for example, a DNS header has some 4-bit numbers, and encodes some boolean flags into single bits. So we really need a way to parse binary data without chunking it up into bytes of 8 bits.
Luckily, Nom can do this! In the last blog post, we learned how to parse text files with Nom. The trick is to start with simple parsers that parse a few characters at a time. Then, using combinators, combine those simple parsers into more complex parsers that can deserialize an entire structured file. We can reuse this approach for parsing binary data too. Let's see how!
"Parsing" is turning a stream of raw text or binary into some structured data types, i.e. a Rust type that your code can understand and use. This isn't the textbook definition of parsing, but damnit, this is my blog and my opinion. This tutorial is about nom, my favourite Rust parsing library. It uses a parser combinator approach: you start writing tiny parsers that match, say, a single number or a character. These become building blocks for larger parsers, that match, say, a date or a phone number. By combining many small parsers together, you can build a big parser that decodes a file or stream into nice Rust structs and enums. In this tutorial we'll use Nom to parse the input file to an Advent of Code puzzle.
Using async Rust libraries is usually easy. It's just like using normal Rust code, with a little
.await here and there. But writing your own async libraries can be hard. The first time I tried this, I got really confused by arcane, esoteric syntax like
T: ?Unpin and
Pin<&mut Self>. I had never seen these types before, and I didn't understand what they were doing. Now that I understand them, I've written the explainer I wish I could have read back then. In this post, we're gonna learn
- What Futures are
- What self-referential types are
- Why they were unsafe
- How Pin/Unpin made them safe
- Using Pin/Unpin to write tricky nested futures
In part one, we defined a Grid trait and implemented it using 1D and 2D vectors. Benchmarks revealed that a 1D vector was a better choice than a nested 2D vector. In this post, we'll write a new implementation that uses arrays instead of Vec. This should be faster!
While making a raytracer in Rust, I needed an efficient way to store the pixels of a 2D image. In this post, we'll compare two different implementations of a 2D grid datatype, dipping our toes into data parallelism with Rayon and benchmarking with Criterion.